【空欄補充問題】 Children exposed to multiple languages may be better natural communicators

【空欄補充問題】

A〜Jに入れるべき適切な語を1〜15から選びなさい。

Young children who hear more than one language spoken at home become better communicators, a new study from University of Chicago psychologists finds. Effective communication ( A ) the ability to take others' perspectives. Researchers ( B ) that children from multilingual environments are better at interpreting a speaker's meaning than children who are exposed ( C ) to their native tongue. The most ( D ) finding is that the children do not even have to be bilingual themselves; it is the exposure to more than one language that is the ( E ) for building effective social communication skills.
Previous studies have examined the effects of being bilingual on cognitive development. This study, published online May 8 by the journal Psychological Science, is the ( F ) to demonstrate the social ( G ) of just being exposed to multiple languages.
"Children in multilingual environments have extensive social practice in monitoring who speaks what to whom, and ( H ) the social patterns and allegiances that are formed ( I ) on language usage ," explained Katherine Kinzler, associate professor of psychology and an expert on language and social development. "These early socio-linguistic experiences could hone children's skills at taking other people's perspectives and provide them ( J ) for effective communication."

※hone 磨きをかける

1. tools 2. novel 3. nearly 4. key 5. monolingual 6. only 7. first 8. observing 9. problems 10. discourages 11. benefits 12. based 13. requires 14. discovered 15. obstacles

続きを読む

「三年に一度は閏年(うるうどし)があって、鶏は明け方になく」-当たり前のことを当たり前と知る

しばらくの間疑問が解けなかった。

道元禅師の説話を収めた『永平広録』(えいへいこうろく)の中で、禅師は仏法については認得眼横鼻直(にんとくがんのうびちょく)「眼(め)は横に、鼻は真っすぐについている」というごく当たり前の認識しかない、と喝破し、さらに当たり前の例として「太陽は東から出て、西に沈む」、「三年に一度は閏年(うるうどし)があって、鶏は明け方になく」と続くくだりがある。







三年必一閏、鶏向五更啼。(道元『永平広録』巻一・四八上堂)
鶏向五更鳴  鶏(にわとり)は五更(ごこう)になく  千宗室筆
建国記念の日、妻は年の初めに家元からいただいた扇子を掲げて茶を点てる
撮影: 2017. 2. 11. NIKON D7100, AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-300mm, 1/80sec f.7.1 ISO400 EV0 30mm spot metering







続きを読む

「すごいだいにんきなかった」って?

ひさしぶりの「ことばの玉手箱」です。

今回の玉手箱から出てくるのは芝の読み方ではなくて、漢字の読み方って感じかな。

では、次のニュースをお読みください。



続きを読む

フロレンス・ナイチンゲール Florence Nightingale

【質 問】

全訳をお願いします!

Nightingale set about transforming the hospital by providing decent food, clean linen, cleaning out the drains and opening the windows to let in fresh air.

In just one week she removed 215 handcarts of filth, flushed the sewers nineteen times and buried the carcasses of two horses, a cow and four dogs which had been found in the hospital grounds.

The officers and doctors who previously run the institution felt that these changes were an insult to their professionalism and fought her every step of the way, but she pushed ahead regardless.

The results seemed to validate her methods: in February 1855 the death rate for all admitted soldiers was 43 per cent, but after her reforms it fell dramatically to just 2 per cent in June 1855.

When she returned to Britain in the summer of 1856, Nightingale was greeted as a hero.

続きを読む

■The Mayonnaise Jar


授業の初めにこれをやってみたかった!(^_^X)


■The Mayonnaise Jar

When things in your life seem almost too much to handle, When 24 hours in a day is not enough: remember the mayonnaise jar and 2 cups of coffee.

A professor stood before his philosophy class and had some items in front of him. When the class began, wordlessly, he picked up a very large and empty mayonnaise jar and proceeded to fill it with golf balls. He then asked the students if the jar was full. They all agreed that it was.






mayonnaise jar 411 Mason

続きを読む

最後のwould lead one to believe がよくわかりません。動詞ですか?

>【質 問】

英文解釈

The actual situations in Japan and the West, however, are much less widely different than the American myth of the independent spirit, for example, or the traditional Japanese ideal of selfless merging with the group would lead one to believe.

最後のwould lead one to believe がよくわかりません。動詞ですか?

続きを読む

■Biodiversity - Nature in the Balance Section 5 (邦訳)

■Biodiversity - Nature in the Balance Section 5 (邦訳)

Section 5 What is one reason the yakushika have done such damage to Yakushima's environment?

  Why have the yakushika done such damage to the environment of Yakushima? One reason is that the deer have begun to use the paths cut by humans to get through the forest. Doing so makes it easier for the deer to reach vegetation in areas of the island they would not have visited before.

  Although the increased sunlight allowed by the open paths should help the vegetation regrow quickly, the wide spaces and lush growth have caused the paths to become feeding grounds for the deer. As a result, deer are treating the areas as all-you-can-eat buffets, and the trees and ferns along the paths are disappearing. The changes made by humans to the natural environment have had an unintentional but noticeable effect on the island's biodiversity.

(注)
sunlight 日光  regrow 再成長する  lush 青々と茂った  growth 茂み  feed 餌をやる  treat A as B  AをBとみなす  
all-you-can-eat 食べ放題の  buffet ビュッフェ/バイキング式レストラン  unintentional 故意ではない  noticeable 著しい  effect 効果・影響


■ Why have the yakushika done such damage to the environment of Yakushima?
なぜ屋久鹿は屋久島の環境にこのような被害を与えたのだろうか?

One reason is that the deer have begun to use the paths cut by humans to get through the forest.
ひとつの理由は、森を通り抜けるために人間が切り開いた小道を鹿が使い始めたことです。

Doing so makes it easier for the deer to reach vegetation in areas of the island they would not have visited before.
そうすることにより以前は訪れたことのないような島の地域にある植物に鹿がたどり着くのがより容易になるのです。

Although the increased sunlight allowed by the open paths should help the vegetation regrow quickly, the wide spaces and lush growth have caused the paths to become feeding grounds for the deer.
開けた小道によりもっと日光が当たるようになり、植物が生え替わるのが促進されはしても、広い空間と青草の繁茂により小道が鹿にとって餌場となりました。

As a result, deer are treating the areas as all-you-can-eat buffets, and the trees and ferns along the paths are disappearing.
その結果、鹿はその地域を食べ放題の食堂と見なしていて、道沿いの木々やシダ類が消えかかっています。

The changes made by humans to the natural environment have had an unintentional but noticeable effect on the island’s biodiversity.
人間による自然環境の変化が島の生物多様性に対して意図しないものの顕著な影響を与えてきているのです。

(注)
sunlight 日光 regrow 再成長する lush 青々と茂った growth 茂み feed 餌をやる treat A as B AをBとみなす
all-you-can-eat 食べ放題の buffet ビュッフェ/バイキング式レストラン unintentional 故意ではない noticeable 著しい effect 効果・影響

【参 考】
■ヤクシカ 屋久鹿
Yaku deer
Cervus nippon yakushimae

哺乳(ほにゅう)綱偶蹄(ぐうてい)目シカ科の動物。ニホンジカの一亜種で、鹿児島県大隅(おおすみ)諸島の屋久(やく)島に分布する。屋久島は周囲約100キロの島で、九州最高峰の宮之浦(みやのうら)岳がある。夏はその山頂一帯で生息するが、冬は雪に覆われるため、下がって生活する。体は日本に生息するシカのなかで最小で、肩高約60センチ、体重30~50キロほどである。角(つの)は雄だけにあり、つねに小さく25~33センチにすぎない。とくに第一枝は短く、ほとんど例外なく第四枝を欠き三尖(せん)である。4~5月の落角後ただちに新たな角が発育し、9~10月ごろに完成する。体色は、夏季は赤褐色に白斑(はくはん)があり、冬季では灰色が強く灰茶色で白斑がなくなる。臀(しり)には通年白斑がみられる。秋から冬にかけては小群をなして生活する。5~6月ごろ1産1~2子を産む。妊娠期間は約8か月、生まれた子には親の夏毛と同様に白斑がある。
〈北原正宣〉 (小学館『日本大百科全書』)



【関連記事】
Biodiversity 生物多様性- Nature in the Balance Section 7 (邦訳)
http://duffer1056.blog79.fc2.com/blog-entry-582.html



<>

【質 問】 なぜ insectが主語でないのでしょうか。 Little is known of this insect.

【質 問】
なぜ insectが主語でないのでしょうか。訳では虫が主語になると思いますが。

Little is known of this insect.
この虫はほとんど知られていない。


【回 答】

英語の「形」からです。

英語では、主に「主語S・・・述語動詞V・・・」の順で文が組み立てられます。

Little is known of this insect.
この昆虫についてはほとんど知られていない。

代名詞のlittle が主語S、is known が述語動詞Vで、「ほんの少しだけのことが知られている」→「ほとんど知られていない」となります。

of this insectは、「この昆虫について」と言う意味ですが、すでにSVが述べられているので、これは修飾語Mとなるのです。

【類例】Little is known about what happened to them . 彼らにどんなことが起ったかはほとんど知られていない
(大修館 CD - ROM版 『ジーニアス英和大和英辞典』 2002)

【参 考】
little 代名詞  [否定的] (程度・量が)少し, わずか(しか…ない)

・They knew little and said less. ほとんど知らなかったし, 口数も少なかった.
・He is happy with little. 少しのものだけで満足している.
・Little remains to be said.=There is little that remains to be said. 言うことはもうほとんどない.
・He gives me little of his company. ろくにつき合ってくれない[訪ねて来ない].
・He has seen little of life. 世間知らずだ.

★adj. 用法に準じて very, rather, precious, so, as, too, how などの副詞に修飾されることがある.
・Very [Precious] little is known about Nessie. ネッシーについてはほとんど知られていない.
・I got so [too] little out of him. 彼からはわずかそれぐらいしか得るところがなかった.
・For as little as $10 more you could get something a lot better. あとほんの 10 ドルあればずっとよい物が手に入るでしょう.
 (研究社『新英和大辞典』第6版)

<>

Our Unrealistic Hopes for Presidents by Brendan Nyhan. New York Times. Dec. 12, 2014

■ Our Unrealistic Hopes for Presidents
DEC. 12, 2014
Brendan Nyhan

When will we give up on the idea of a leader who will magically bring consensus and unity to our politics?

At election time, candidates seduce us with promises to bring America together, but inevitably fall short and end up leaving office with the country more polarized than when they arrived. After blaming them for their failure to unite us, we turn to the next crop of presidential aspirants and the cycle of hope and disappointment begins all over again.

The latest example of this pattern, of course, is Barack Obama. His 2008 campaign was premised on his ability to forge new coalitions in Washington, which Hillary Clinton mocked at the time as “Let's get everybody together, let's get unified, the sky will open, the light will come down, celestial choirs will be singing.”

In office, though, he has never succeeded in overcoming Republican resistance to his agenda, forcing him to pass his most significant legislative accomplishments with few or no G.O.P. votes. After his party's decisive defeat in last month's midterm elections, the administration has now largely given up on bipartisan deal-making and is pursuing its policy goals on issues like immigration and the environment through executive action.

The debate over why Mr. Obama failed to achieve some larger consensus has already begun. Some have suggested that if only he had not pursued health care reform or had a less detached and analytical personal style he might have won over the public and his opponents in Congress. It may be true that Mr. Obama has made mistakes, but our disappointment with him ultimately reflects the mismatch between our expectations for presidents and the partisan realities of the contemporary era.

The public and the news media still want someone who meets the mid-20th-century ideal for a modern president: a uniting figure who works across the aisle to build support for his agenda and commands public opinion from the bully pulpit. While this image was always mostly a myth — presidents typically struggle to move polls or legislators' votes — the political realities of the time did allow presidents to build more diffuse coalitions in Congress and attract broad public support when the circumstances were favorable.

However, the political system that helped enable this approach is disappearing. The mid-20th century was a historical anomaly — a low point in polarization that was made possible by the ugly history of race in this country, which enabled the rise of a group of conservative Southern Democrats who functioned almost as a third party. After the civil rights movement, the parties realigned on the issue of race, setting in motion a return to the historic norm of polarization that prevailed in the late 19th and early 20th century. This process, which is transforming all of our nation's political institutions, has been supercharged by the way the parties have become more closely aligned with ideological movements than ever before.

A result is what the political scientist Richard Skinner calls the partisan presidency. In this era, presidents are dividers, not uniters (to reverse George W. Bush's famous phrase); their public appeal is deeply polarized along party lines and they depend overwhelmingly on the support of co-partisans in Congress to enact legislation. They are particularly vulnerable to obstruction from the opposition party, which can withhold support as congressional Republicans have done, denying the president the imprimatur of bipartisanship and producing legislative gridlock for which the president is often blamed.

That's why it's a mistake to personalize Mr. Obama's failures so much, as his critics often do. Critics suggest that Mr. Obama is too aloof and hasn't done enough to solicit Republican support or build relationships with legislators. Both may be true, but as John Harwood recently noted in The Times, Bill Clinton's more successful outreach to his opponents didn't keep him from getting impeached. Likewise, George W. Bush was more gregarious than Mr. Obama, but it didn't make him any more popular among Democrats once the post-9/11 glow had worn off.

It's a common mistake to attribute other people's behavior to their inherent characteristics in this way. We seem especially prone to this pattern, which is known as fundamental attribution error, with presidents. But as recent history shows, our current political system tends to produce division and conflict no matter the circumstances.

The comedian Chris Rock is ahead of most political analysts in recognizing this new reality. In a recent interview, he described how George W. Bush adapted to this new political environment, saying Mr. Bush “only served the people who voted for him.”

“He literally operated like a cable network,” he added, while Mr. Obama is “a network guy.” He explained: “He's trying to get everybody. And I think he's figured out, and maybe a little late, that there's some people he's never going to get.”

As we approach the next presidential campaign, we need to stop asking who can achieve the unity that has eluded Mr. Obama. For better or worse, the partisan presidency is here to stay. There are some people the next president will never get, as Mr. Rock puts it. The question we should ask instead is whether the candidate we choose will — or can — govern well without their support.



Brendan Nyhan is an assistant professor of government at Dartmouth College.

A version of this article appears in print on December 14, 2014, on page SR3 of the New York edition with the headline: Our Unrealistic Hopes for Presidents.
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/14/upshot/our-unrealistic-hopes-for-presidents.html?_r=0&abt=0002&abg=1



■ Our Unrealistic Hopes for Presidents
Brendan Nyhan. NYT DEC. 12, 2014

When will we give up on the idea of a leader who will magically bring consensus and unity to our politics?
いつになったらわたしたちは、政治に合意と統一を魔法のようにもたらしてくれる指導者という考えに見切りをつけるのだろうか?

【語 句】
give up on 【句動】~に見切りをつける、~に愛想を尽かす、~を見捨てる
・I know he is an alcoholic and a drug addict, but we can't give up on him. 彼はアルコール依存症で麻薬中毒だが、見捨てることはできない。
・The doctors gave up on him. 医師たちは彼の治療をあきらめました。/彼は、医者にさじを投げられた。◆手の施しようがない場合など。

At election time, candidates seduce us with promises to bring America together, but inevitably fall short and end up leaving office with the country more polarized than when they arrived. After blaming them for their failure to unite us, we turn to the next crop of presidential aspirants and the cycle of hope and disappointment begins all over again.
選挙の時には、候補者たちはアメリカを団結させるという約束でわたしたちをたぶらかすが、かならず達成できずに就任時よりも国を二分化させたまま退任する。わたしたちは彼らが団結させるのに失敗したことを非難してから、大統領をめざす次の一団の方を向き、もう一度最初から希望と失望を繰り返すのである。

【語 句】
fall short 〔要求・期待・目標・水準・基準などに〕及ばない、達しない、届かない、足りない、不十分である

The latest example of this pattern, of course, is Barack Obama. His 2008 campaign was premised on his ability to forge new coalitions in Washington, which Hillary Clinton mocked at the time as “Let's get everybody together, let's get unified, the sky will open, the light will come down, celestial choirs will be singing.”
もちろん、このパターンの最近の例はバラク・オバマである。2008年の彼の選挙戦は彼にはワシントンで新しい連携を作り出す能力があるとの前提に立ったものだったが、それを当時ヒラリー・クリントンはあざ笑ってこのようにまねて見せた、「みんなで団結しましょうね、ひとつになりましょう、空は開き、光は降りてきて、天上の聖歌隊が歌を歌うでしょう。」と。

In office, though, he has never succeeded in overcoming Republican resistance to his agenda, forcing him to pass his most significant legislative accomplishments with few or no G.O.P. votes. After his party's decisive defeat in last month's midterm elections, the administration has now largely given up on bipartisan deal-making and is pursuing its policy goals on issues like immigration and the environment through executive action.
しかし、就任してからは彼は政策意図に対する共和党の抵抗を克服するのに一度も成功したことはなく、もっとも重要な立法化を果たすにも共和党からは皆無かあってもわずかしか票を得られない事態を余儀なくされた。先月の中間選挙で彼の党が決定的敗北を喫した後、政権は二党間の取引をほぼあきらめて、政策目標を移民や環境などの問題にすえて行政措置により遂行しようとしている。

【語 句】
in office 在任期間中に、公職[役職]に就いて、在職する、任にある、〔政党が〕政権を握って
(この記事を書くにあたり主に『英辞郎』CD-ROM版および 研究社『新英和大辞典』)を参照・引用しました。)


<>

Biodiversity 生物多様性- Nature in the Balance Section 7 (邦訳)

Biodiversity 生物多様性- Nature in the Balance Section 7 (邦訳)

■Section 7 What should be done about the increasing population of yakushika?

The actions of humans have helped increase the population of yakushika and the damage the deer have caused to the island's vegetation. So humans have a responsibility to consider what to do about this problem. In fact, the residents of the island have already started to think about solutions in cooperation with the Ministry of the Environment.
But our attempts to solve the problems can lead to unintended consequences. Controlling the number of yakushika is one way, but their role in the island's ecosystem must also be protected. If too many yakushika are eliminated, they may face extinction, which would have even more harmful effects on the ecosystem. Therefore, population control must be considered very carefully.

(注)
responsibility 責任  solution 解決策  in cooperation with ~ ~と協力して  ministry 省  attempt 試み  unintended 故意ではない consequence 結果  ecosystem 生態系  eliminate ~を排除する  harmful 有害な


■Section 7 What should be done about the increasing population of yakushika?
§7 屋久鹿の固体数増加について何が出来るだろうか?

①The actions of humans have helped increase the population of yakushika and the damage the deer have caused to the island's vegetation.
人間の活動が屋久島の個体数と鹿による島の植生への害を助長してきた。

②So humans have a responsibility to consider what to do about this problem.
だから人間はこの問題について何をすべきか考える責任がある。

③In fact, the residents of the island have already started to think about solutions in cooperation with the Ministry of the Environment.
事実、島の住民はすでに環境省と協力して解決策について考え始めている。

④ But our attempts to solve the problems can lead to unintended consequences.
しかしこの問題を解決しようとするわれわれの試みは思わぬ結果を引き起こしかねない。

⑤Controlling the number of yakushika is one way, but their role in the island's ecosystem must also be protected.
屋久鹿の数を制御するのはひとつの方法であるが、島の生態系における屋久鹿の役割もまた護らなければならない。

⑥If too many yakushika are eliminated, they may face extinction, which would have even more harmful effects on the ecosystem.
もし多すぎる数の屋久鹿が駆除されれば、鹿は絶滅に直面するかも知れなくて、そうなれば生態系にもっと被害をもたらすだろう。

⑦Therefore, population control must be considered very carefully.
したがって、個体数の制御はきわめて慎重に考えなければならない。


【関連記事】
Biodiversity - Nature in the Balance Section 5 (邦訳)
http://duffer1056.blog79.fc2.com/blog-date-20150320.html

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プロフィール

ダッファー 

Author:ダッファー 
夢 もう一度St.Andrewsオールドコース17番でパーを取る。
似た役者 中村扇雀 改め坂田藤十郎
夢中対象 ゴルフ 1989(H23) '90(H14)'93(H7)'96(H5) 2004(H8) /写真/花鳥風月 
ホールインワンは3回しか達成していない。生涯計画6回完遂^^。

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